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Abstract 27th February 2014 – Session 2A

Klaus Kempf (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München, Germany)
A silent revolution, or the transformation of the catalogue from a local data silo to a multiple net based access and meta data system
1. Introduction. By now librarians are used to deal with “information revolutions”. They even contribute themselves to all possible doom scenarios for their own institutions. Still less obvious for them are the “secret or quiet revolutions”, which take place in their immediate environment. Such a radical change, indeed a real, although mostly silent revolution can be confirmed also for one of the librarian core activities, namely the library catalogue and its contents (metadata). In the following I would like to support this thesis with several arguments and examples from the Bavarian State Library.
2. Changes to the catalogue. On a local level: There has been a development in several steps from the mere (conventional) holdings record to online catalogues (with each new functions/public services) and finally to a comprehensive online discovery service (even in a mobile version). This service has the capability, depending on local needs, to include open access repositories, as well as licensed or free web resources (such as Wikipedia) and provide those with immediate access to the (digital) documents/objects.
On a network level: The capacity of online catalogues to record holdings and later on also to provide access to resources diffused in the framework of library automation beyond the local catalogue version towards the establishment of union catalogues with varying characteristics and reach on a regional/national/worldwide level (e.g. Bavarian Union Catalogue , Worldcat) and meta catalogues, such as the KVK . This development finally lead to information portals with subject expertise and/or with an interdisciplinary focus which can be set up regionally (bavarikon ), nationally (Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek – DDB), or internationally (Europeana).
Linked open data: Opening up of the catalogue or provision of its contents (metadata) for non-librarian (re)use. One example for linked open data is Wikipedia – here personal names are linked to relevant catalogue records or web resources.
3.Changes in the creation and in the use of the catalogue contents (metadata). Standardisation of metadata und implementation of authority files on a regional, national and international level. Expansion of the librarian metadata concept and use. Due to digitisation and acquisition of digital media there are, next to bibliographical metadata, also other forms of metadata required and in use, such as administrative, technical and structural metadata; these are only partially recorded/visible in the catalogue. Therefore separate tools are necessary, e.g. ZEND (digitisation) or Rosetta (archiving). Excursus: The advent of the online catalogue has originally the consequence of bringing together the different catalogue types into one single bibliographic tool. With entering the digital world and the inclusion of digital media/objects in the catalogues the catalogue is again separated into an internal library data management instrument on the one hand, which you might call the (advanced) “new internal or staff catalogue (Dienstkatalog)” and on the other hand into a user oriented access tool, a key element of the new, broadly based access system, which you might call, taking up the definitions of the predigital age or the age of the card catalogue, the “new public catalogue (Publikumskatalog)”. Interdisciplinary application of standardised metadata, i.e. the use of a standardised data format (e.g. the Europeana Data Model – EDM, which has been developed for all kinds of memory institutions), of links to well-established authority files (Integrated Authority File – GND , Library of Congress Authorities, in future possibly also VIAF ), and persistent identifiers.
4. Current development trends. Implementation of an international, interdisciplinary standard for the creation of metadata: Resource Description and Access (RDA). Development and bringing into use of a new, web-ready and interdisciplinary data exchange format, which, among other things, facilitates the use of data on the Semantic Web and enables the interoperability of various data sources. With BIBFRAME such a data format is coming into being. Automatic generation and creation of metadata. This is essential, because library “collection objects” are dramatically changing. Thus catalogues include not only records for physical works but for a broad range of objects: e-books, databases, websites and in future also more and more blogs and primary research data.
Massimo Gentili Tedeschi (Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense, Italy)
The Illusion of controlled Vocabularies: towards a cataloguing Babele?
Some examples concerning music resources illustrate how in different contexts, and using different languages, the same concepts are expressed with different approaches, leading to completely different interpretations, and how that ends with completely different cataloguing practices.
These examples include simple concepts, like format of notated music, arrangement, etc.
In many cases what in a language is expressed by a single word, in another language may require an entire sentence, or common cases in one environment may be absolutely unknown in other contexts – due to different performing or publication practices – and thus no equivalent term may exist.
Worries concern the tendency to rely on controlled vocabularies, and even worse to simplify them, changing the meaning of one word in one language, based on the common language and not on the specific technical term, without regard on the impact on other languages.
The risk of this practice to use linguistic terms, instead of expressing concepts with other techniques, is to present catalogue records in a form that is not understood by the users – musicians, musicologists or music specialists in this case – and to make interoperabilty more or less impossible, and data exchange or linked data non reliable.
Paola Manoni (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City)
New challenges facing the Vatican Library in the complex management between set of metadata
This talk is focused on four key objectives: 1) The presentation of sets of metadata used in the Vatican Library’s individual catalogues for different library holdings (manuscripts, archival units, printed books, graphic prints, drawings, coins and medals): local definitions and the application of standards (MARC21, EAD, TEI); 2) The structure of the Vatican Library’s general catalogue:
the presence of different descriptive metadata in an integrated environment where different standards are applied in different encoding formats; the assignment of permanent URI references to metadata terms, to publish bibliographic records on the Web of data; 3) The relationship between the structural and descriptive metadata in the management of the digitization project of the Vatican Libray: the web presentation of the digitized works and the use of METS; links to bibliographic records and the use of DC and MODS; 4) The definition and the set up of data elements in cooperative programs: the experience of the Vatican Library in the context of VIAF and other joint projects.
These four different perspectives have in common a strategic assessment in the use and evaluation of the metadata as well as the data management in a holistic vision of catalogues.
Also, scope of the presentation is to highlight issues that the Vatican library, in the variety and uniqueness of its collections, has to cope with, due to contemporary changes in the current scenarios in which traditional libraries are dealing today.
Anna Lucarelli, Elisabetta Viti (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Italy)
Florence-Washington round trip: ways and intersections between semantic indexing tools in different languages
the Nuovo soggettario universal Thesaurus with the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH).
In the international view, many projects have been undertaken to create an interoperability between controlled vocabularies in the same languages or in different languages, between different classification schemes and between controlled vocabularies and classification schemes.
As long ago as 1985, the scientific community worked to define specific standards for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri and cross-concordance between terms of controlled vocabularies in different languages. The standard ISO 5964, which should be used in conjunction with ISO 2788 focused attention on the problem of multilingualism. In the course of time this standard has been a point of reference for subsequent standards such as ANSI NISO Z39.19 and BS8723.
The most recent ISO 25964 pays attention to the topic of multilingualism and to mapping terms to overcome linguistic barriers and to provide a truly multilingual search within the environment of Semantic Web and linked data.
In semantic indexing tools, multilingualism presents two types of problems: semantic-structural problems (about meaning of a term, its use in a specific language, the grammatical and syntactical rules, and the place of a term inside the tree structure of the thesaurus) and technological problems.
Nuovo soggettario Thesaurus, edited by Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze, uses a special-purpose software to manage multilingualism and, since 2006, has implemented LCSH equivalence links. Since 2010 we have established some concordances produced and improved by manually creating links, by SKOS/RDF, a format used by Nuovo soggettario and LCSH. We will explain the steps of mapping in this paper.
LCSH equivalents make it possible to access Thesaurus Nuovo soggettario directly (increasing the possibility of semantic search not only in Italian OPACs). In the future they will be able to establish other examples of interoperability to improve Semantic Web outputs and Wikidata projects which, nowadays are more and more important in libraries.
For this reason, we think that good quality open source metadata, provided by subject indexing tools, will be very important in future cataloguing and elsewhere.
Laura Lalli (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City)
Rare books in the Vatican Library: reshaping the catalogue
This contribution will focus on the aims of the Rare Books’ Section of the Vatican Library. Taking as a start the analytical cataloging of incunabula, the Section will deal with similar cataloging of the books printed in the 16th century and later. Analytical cataloging requires deep skill in reading and interpreting the features which bear witness to the book’s journey through history: handwritten notes, coats of arms, owners’ identification, printers’ marks, bindings, etc.
In recent years, the Section also takes part in the rare books’ digitization project known as “Project Polonsky”. Thanks to digitization, scholars from all over the world will be able to see the rare incunabula preserved in the Vatican Library.
Lisa Longhi (Fondazione BEIC, Italy)
Try walking in your shoes. Cataloguing incunabula with user’s mind
In 2012 Fondazione Biblioteca Europea di Informazione e Cultura (Beic) presented Beic Digital Library, a project which aims to make available on web a selection of international books and writings of particular value and scientific interest, through their digital copies (images and metadata).
The Incunabula in Italian collection includes over 1600 titles from Italian and foreign libraries. The approach to this heritage required the definition of standards specifically created to obtain a complete description and mapping of editorial products as complex and unique as the incunabula. While the bibliographical records are mostly extracted from Incunabula Short Title (ISTC) and Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke (GW), the images mapping can almost allow a book-in-hand cataloguing, offering the opportunity to derive an analysis of the copy-specific in its external characteristics, together with an examination of the edition content.
The paper examines the genesis and the need for constant updating of all the methodological choices, it presents the results obtained so far and the future possibilities of the project. Furthermore it offers a reflection on how this work can be an opportunity of study and research for the cataloguer as well as for the user and how a professional training of the cataloguer can better meet the user’s requests and even anticipate them.
Paola Puglisi (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma, Italy)
«The day has not yet come…»: an old challenge for a richer catalogue
Keywords: bibliographic description, book-jackets, dust-jackets
In 1971 the eminent American scholar G. Thomas Tanselle wrote: «the day has not yet come when one can learn anything of a library’s holdings of jackets by consulting its catalogue». Forty-three years after, library catalogues are tools that welcome lots of users’ instances; but although, they remain sealed regarding the book-jackets issue, in relation to that one, though it came from a very central area of book disciplines (especially in Anglo-American studies). Book-jackets, whose “original sin” is their being physically separate from the book, are nevertheless essential documents for the history of publishing. Their first purpose nowadays is to induce to buy the book, and, for this reason, they carry important paratextual information – both as author’s will and as a part of a marketing strategy; so that they are also, in itselves, a means to promote reading. Librarians always made use of book-jackets in indexing practices – but, paradoxically, they still don’t allow credit to them as object of catalographic description. Many libraries still do not keep book-jackets, or just keep them by sample: and so do many legal deposit libraries, whose mission should be the national publishing heritage preservation. Only a few specialised libraries somehow describe the book-jackets they keep.
That being stated, this paper aims at meeting the FSR Conference issue about «the value of cataloguing and “real” library»: in fact, it intends to examine whether – and how – the item «book-jacket» is met in some of the greatest catalographic tools (codes, guidelines, standards); it proposes to consider the reason why cataloguers usually “distrust” book-jackets; and it also aims at checking, in recent professional literature, if there is any changed attitude in taking into account book-jackets and their library management (e.g. as authoritative source): and especially whether conditions exist in order to change for the better, that is up to the point to consider the book-jacket no more just as a source, but as an object of cataloguing. Anyhow, the author’s intention is to represent the necessity, for every scholar interested in it, to access to the information about a single book’s book-jacket directly from the library catalogue, or at least from the national bibliography; furthermore, to access to the information (if given) about the responsibility for the graphic design of the book cover. Any problem related to the physical separateness of the book-jacket (e.g. the possibility to make a mistake in matching a book-jacket and a single edition of a book) nowadays is to be solved, in the author’s opinion, thanks to the many tools at the professional community’s disposal; while the scholar community could receive a great advantage by such an enriched information.

URL: Copyright AIB 2014-02-04. Creata da Artemisia Gentileschi, ultima modifica 2014-03-04 di