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Abstract 28th February 2014 – Session 3B

Violeta Ilik (Texas A&M University, USA)
Cataloguer makeover
Abstract
This presentation shares a vision of the enterprise of cataloging and the role of catalogers and metadata librarians in the 21st century. The revolutionary opportunities now presented by digital technology in the internet age liberate catalogers from their historically analog based static world, re-conceptualize it, and transform it into a world of three dimensionality and fluidity. We are constantly being reminded that we need to focus on the tasks of organizing information and creating information surrogates that no longer resemble the orthogonal vision of a catalog record. The power of semantic technologies is freeing us from the two dimensional surrogates to a much richer, more fluid and more complete three dimensional concept. Catalogers need to adapt to the changing world, and transform themselves to accept new roles. How successful are we in those attempts to transform? Strout warned us in 1956: “We may be so blinded by … firmly established customs that we are incapable of seeing some utterly simple alternatives which might quickly resolve our problems, and which will someday look so easy and obvious that our descendants will in turn look upon us as unseeing and unimaginative.” The need for the library technical services departments to be proactive in the development of innovative new ways of creating, re-using and sharing of metadata is obvious. Have we taken advantage of the tools available to contribute to the new library ecosystem and showcase our ability to embrace the change, adapt to it, and take an active role in the creation of new exciting digital exhibits? There is a whole new world beyond MARC and that world should include us – the catalogers. Are we able to play a leadership role in crafting the information environment; are we able to adapt to the world beyond MARC? Are we sure we will have a library catalog in our future, and if we do – what will that catalog look like? Our catalogs are full of rules and standards which are, no doubt, essential, but, as Williams noted “standards should be seen as a source of usefulness not as a source for trauma and nervous breakdown.” Illustrative examples of innovative metadata creation and manipulation, such as non-MARC name authority records, will be presented to encourage attendees to embrace the new technologies. The goal is to contribute to the libraries’ mission with innovative projects that enable discovery, development, communication, learning and creativity, and hold promise to exceed users’ expectations.
Cristina Pattuelli (Pratt Institute New York, USA)
Discovering Jazz History through Linked Open Data: The Linked Jazz Project
Linked Open Data is seen as a promising web technology allowing libraries, archives and other cultural institutions to connect and share their data on the web to foster new forms of content discovery and use. Linked Jazz is an ongoing project that applies Linked Open Data technology to digital collections of jazz history to reveal the network of relationships between jazz artists, ultimately enhancing visibility and access of cultural heritage content. The Linked Jazz project has progressed in an iterative and experimental fashion through the design and the development of new tools and practices that include data extraction from textual primary sources, data curation through mapping and authority work and data crowdsourcing. This presentation will use Linked Jazz as a case study, sharing the lessons learned as well as the contributions made to the knowledgebase of sound principles, methods, and best practices for developing Linked Open Data for libraries, archives and museums.
Carlo Bianchini (University of Pavia, Italy), Mauro Guerrini (University of Florence, Italy)
A turning point for catalogues
Abstract
Since the end of the last Century, catalogues are changing faster and faster, and this change is following a well recognizable mainstream. It begins with the publication of FRBR, that represented a turning point for catalogues as it logical model started a deep change in the way we thing to bibliographic work.
FRBR was the basis for a logical reorganization of international cataloguing principles, for the revision of international standards of IFLA, as ISBD, and for the foundation of new cataloguing codes as REICAT (Regole Italiane di Catalogazione) and RDA (Resource Description and Access).
Logical improvements derived from FRBR require to change data structure of the catalogue and, consequently, of cataloguing software and bibliographic formats. This further development is recognizable also in FRBR family evolution, where groups and reports changed their focus and terminology from bibliographic records to data, underlining the increasing importance and the role of granularity in catalogues.
From a completely different starting point, also the world of the Semantic Web has to face a deep change, the shifting from the web of documents to the web of data. There is great convergence among libraries and the Semantic Web, both because Principles described by Tim Berners Lee for the creation of Linked Data, the basis of the Semantic Web, are directly associable to users’ function defined by FRAD, and because authority work produces in library catalogues is high valued in the context of the web of data.
While principles, models and rules are well established, bibliographic format seems to be a real bottle neck. Old bibliographic formats prevent the creation of really new users’ interface, even if many attempts were made to overcome the limits of MARC format and to create FRBR-ized catalogues.
Millions of bibliographic records cannot risk to be discarded; nevertheless they are not directly usable in the new context. In this perspective, in 2011 the Library of Congress launched a new initiative, named Bibliographic Framework Initiative, with the aim to implement in the future a new bibliographic environment for libraries, that makes “the network” central and makes interconnectedness commonplace.
The BIBFRAME report states that the “new model is more than a mere replacement for the library community’s current model/format, MARC. It is the foundation for the future of bibliographic description that happens on, in, and as part of the web and the networked world we live in.” (Library of Congress, 2012, p. 3). Even if it is just a draft, BIBFRAME shows also weak point, that must be carefully considered.
While catalogues have found a critical turning point, the context of production and dissemination of intellectual and artistic content seems to be characterized by a process of dematerialization of the work, in which text is reachable in more and more formats.
This paper has the aim to present an overview of the many evolutions that are in progress and to highlight potential convergences, developments and weak points of this very changeable context.
Eddie Paul (Jewish Public Library, Montreal, Canada)
A Different Holy Trinity: The FRBR Implementation at the Jewish Public Library, Montreal
Keywords: FRBR
Abstract
In March of 2012, the Jewish Public Library (JPL) in Montreal became the first public library in the world to adopt and implement FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) as part of its integrated cataloguing system, Virtua. The JPL is both a public lending and research library. Its academic collections of Judaica span a diverse array of languages, its holdings consist of vital canonical works ranging from various editions of the Bible, Talmudic, kabbalistic, and the Jewish legal corpus, and its users extend beyond the local Montreal population. It had grown increasingly more challenging to search these collections within the limitations of MARC21, and required the expertise of the library’s bibliographers and reference staff to assist our users.
FRBR is a means of linking bibliographic records according to a set of criteria that used conceptual relationships to determine the underlying connections between discrete works. Its applications to the collections were a foregone conclusion: in a relatively short period of time, we have created extensive genealogies between parent works and their children that have enabled librarians to produce not just a set of reference points for the user, but a means of understanding library collections from a different perspective.
Specifically, the FRBR add-on to the JPL’s catalogue allows cataloguers to map relationships between editions, translations, and formats of works on a graphical tree that sits atop the FRBRized record.
In 2014, the JPL will also be celebrating its centennial year with a curated exhibition and printed catalogue of its antiquarian book collection: these books date back to the late 15th century and were among many others distributed throughout the world by the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee after 1945. The implementation of FRBR will allow us to link many of these works to their corresponding earlier editions, contemporary translations, and other canonical arrangements that constitute the library’s primary collections mandate.
This paper will chronicle the JPL’s planning, implementation, and early observation of its FRBRized bibliographic records, as well as its plans to FRBRize targeted components of its historical ephemeral collections (Jewish Canadiana). The JPL’s FRBR application also allows for the creation of aggregate relationships between components of works (eg. anthologized short stories, songs on audio CDs, etc.) and larger related works: this has extensive applications for bibliographers whose research encompasses all literary genres, and has already proven to be of inestimable value for our own users who are aware of popular stories, songs, and other small units of text by one name, and can now locate them using FRBR’s linking capabilities.
Edward M. Corrado, Rachel Jaffe (Binghamton University Libraries, USA)
Transforming and enhancing metadata for enduser discovery: a case study
Keywords: digital preservation, metadata, photographs
Abstract
This paper describes the process developed by Binghamton University Libraries to extract embedded metadata from digital photographs and transform it into descriptive Dublin Core metadata for use in the Libraries’ digital preservation system.
In 2011, Binghamton University Libraries implemented the Rosetta digital preservation system (from Ex Libris) to preserve digitized and born-digital materials. At the same time, the Libraries’ implemented the Primo discovery tool (from Ex Libris) to bring together not only the digital collections in Rosetta, but also bibliographic holdings from our integrated library system and other sources.
Currently, the Libraries are working with the campus photographer to preserve and provide access to 350,000+ digital images. Most of these images depict campus events, such as Homecoming, Commencement, etc. that are of historical and immediate social value to the campus community. These images are used widely in marketing and outreach materials, and on the University’s website. However, owing to volume of photographs, as well as to budgetary and other constraints, it is not possible to have library staff inspect the photographs and create a complete descriptive metadata record for each, so we needed to explore different options. Each of photographer’s images contains embedded metadata (file format, date and time stamps, location, etc.) and additionally, many of the files also contain basic descriptive information supplied by the photographer, including his name, keywords and/or a short description.
Using this basic metadata as a starting point, cataloguing and systems librarians at Binghamton University Libraries were able to create an automated process to reformat and enhance the available descriptive information, crosswalk it to the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, and map keywords to controlled subject and location terms (including Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM), Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN), etc.) Following the initial set-up, the only steps requiring manual intervention are extracting and identifying new keywords, updating the mapping table, running the scripts, proofreading the Dublin Core metadata once it has been produced, and lastly, depositing the images and metadata into the preservation system.
Using this collection as a case study, we will demonstrate how embedded metadata can be upcycled in order to produce complete descriptive metadata records, which can then be integrated and indexed with metadata from other sources, and ultimately made discoverable by library users. After all, no matter how well a repository takes care of a file, how well it keeps, preserves or displays it, it makes no sense to put an digital object into a system if you cannot find it later.
The Libraries’ workflow and portions of code will be shared; issues and challenges involved will be discussed. While this case study is specific to Binghamton University Libraries, examples of strategies used at other institutions will also be introduced. This paper should be useful to anyone interested in describing large quantities of photographs or other materials with preexisting embedded metadata.
Juliya Borie, Kate MacDonald, Elisa Sze (University of Toronto, Canada)
Asserting our place in the “value of libraries” conversation: the evolving role and future of cataloguing
Keywords: digital preservation, metadata, photographs
Abstract
With the widespread availability of online resources and the associated expectations from library users that these resources be easy to find, libraries must offer increasingly sophisticated and seamless access to their collections and services. As a result, much of the recent library literature, including research reports from major library associations such as OCLC’s Perceptions of Libraries, 2010: Context and Community; ACRL’s The Value of Academic Libraries: A Comprehensive Research Review and Report (2010); ACRL’s 2012 Top 10 Trends in Academic Libraries; and RIN and RLUK’s The Value of Libraries for Research and Researchers (2011), is concerned with examining how libraries can demonstrate their value to their home institutions and communities in this new information environment. How does the value of cataloguing fit into this broader discussion of library value? By the very nature of their work, cataloguers tend to lack visibility unless they interact regularly with library users. Additionally, while technological advances and enhancements of the catalogues empower users to become more independent researchers, they make it less apparent who is behind this value­added service. At this junction, it is essential that cataloguers are active participants in the broader discussion and demonstration of library value. But how can cataloguers participate in this discussion and express the value they bring to their institutions? Value­added cataloguing holds the promise of helping cataloguers describe and provide access to increasingly complex digital resources beyond the confines of the traditional bibliographic record. The presentation will consider a definition of value­added cataloguing and analyze new developments in digital publishing that challenge us to reflect on the the traditional library tasks of acquiring, describing, providing access and preserving innovative and highly dynamic forms of scholarship. Finally, the authors aim to identify areas for further research that will aid cataloguers in advocating for the importance of cataloguing within the broader context of the value of libraries.
URL: https://www.aib.it/attivita/congressi/fsr-2014/fsr2014-abstract/2014/40490-fsr-session3b-20140227/. Copyright AIB 2014-02-04. A cura di Andrea Marchitelli, ultima modifica 2014-02-08