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Look beyond – Abstract

Athena Salaba, Keynote speech

Indexing in libraries has traditionally focused on books with some extensions to other types of textual resources, but the collections included other types of resources, namely language and non-language resources. In today’s environment, as library walls are becoming invisible and resources curated by libraries and other cultural heritage institutions are expanding beyond texts, does indexing of these resources receive the same attention? Is book indexing transferable to indexing of non-textual resources?  Panofsky’s iconological method describes three levels of analysis of art, which can apply to the analysis of other types of non-textual information resources. Building on iconological methods, this presentation will provide the context and an overview of subject and other aspect or facet analysis and representation of non-textual resources. Using different cases, the presentation will cover indexing, challenges, and ethical considerations.

Nelle biblioteche, l’indicizzazione si è tradizionalmente focalizzata sui libri, estendendosi ad altri tipi di risorse testuali ma le collezioni da sempre hanno incluso anche altri tipi di risorse, di natura testuale o meno. Nel contesto contemporaneo in cui i confini della biblioteca stanno diventando invisibili e le risorse gestite dalle biblioteche e dalle altre istituzioni culturali si stanno espandendo ben oltre il testo, l’indicizzazione di queste risorse riceve la stessa attenzione? È possibile applicare l’indicizzazione dei libri a quella delle risorse di natura non testuale? Il metodo iconologico di Panofsky che individua tre livelli di analisi dell’arte può essere applicato all’analisi di altri tipi di risorse di natura non testuale. Partendo dai metodi iconologici, la presentazione fornisce il contesto e una panoramica dell’analisi per soggetto, per faccette e per altri aspetti e della rappresentazione delle risorse di natura non testuale. Sulla base di diversi esempi, la presentazione affronta l’indicizzazione, le sue sfide e le implicazioni etiche.

Claudio Gnoli, The curtain of Broni: knowledge organization beyond books

The field of knowledge organization (KO) deals with ways of ordering knowledge contents: it stands at the intersection of several disciplines including library and information science, taxonomy in the special sciences, philosophy, computer science and linguistics. The contents to be organized are usually understood as conveyed through documents: these may include not just books and articles but also audio, video, online resources, archive items, museum specimens, garden and zoo specimens. The presentation discusses a case of KO application to an unusual kind of document: the 19th-century curtain of the theatre of Broni (Pavia, Italy), where a scene of a feast is depicted, providing relevant information about musical instruments of the time. Such kind of contents can hardly be indexed by traditional bibliographic classifications based on disciplines, as they would just be filed under e.g. decorative arts rather than the depicted instruments. More suitable for such interdisciplinary, cross-media needs seem to be phenomenon-based classifications, like the Integrative Levels Classification.

Il sipario di Broni: organizzazione della conoscenza oltre i libri

Il settore dell’organizzazione della conoscenza (knowledge organization, KO) si occupa dei modi di ordinare i contenuti conoscitivi: esso si trova all’intersezione di diverse discipline comprese biblioteconomia e scienze dell’informazione, tassonomia nelle diverse scienze, filosofia, informatica e linguistica. I contenuti da organizzare si intendono generalmente veicolati da documenti: questi ultimi possono comprendere non soltanto libri e articoli, ma anche audio, video, risorse online, oggetti di archivio, esemplari esposti in musei, orti botanici e giardini zoologici. La presentazione discute un caso di applicazione della KO a un tipo insolito di documento: il sipario ottocentesco del teatro di Broni (Pavia), su cui è rappresentata la scena di una festa che offre informazioni rilevanti sugli strumenti musicali del tempo. Difficilmente questo genere di contenuti può essere indicizzato con le tradizionali classificazioni bibliografiche basate sulle discipline, in quanto essi ricadrebbero ad es. sotto le arti decorative piuttosto che sotto gli strumenti raffigurati. Più adatte a tali requisiti interdisciplinari e crossmediali appaiono le classificazioni basate sui fenomeni, come l’Integrative Levels Classification.

Michela Grossi, Roberta Schiavone, Beyond the score: indexing notated music for performance

This report, starting from the observation of the change in librarianship perspective, which led to a shift from the centrality of the book and the library collections, to the centrality of the user and the reference service, intends to explore the informative potential of the semantic indexing of notated music resources for the performance, seen not just as execution but also as access to music. While in the foreign countries the semantic indexing of notated music has a long tradition witnessed by numerous projects such as LCSH, the Music Thesaurus Project and Musaurus, in Italy this possibility has never been implemented. The report offers a few ideas for reflection and, analysing a case study, puts in play operational proposals aimed at developing the potential of the national library service (SBN) in relation to semantics and its interoperability with other knowledge organization systems in the musical context, in order to contribute to the transformation of OPACs into library linked data. Furthermore, the study identifies The Nuovo Soggettario as the right tool for this practice, showing the possibility of enriching the terminological heritage of the Thesaurus with musical terms as a result of a productive collaboration between librarians and specialists.

Tiziana Possemato, Strings and their semantics: the treatment of subjects in entity modelling processes

The transition from the concept of cataloging to that of entity modeling in the cataloging field requires some tailoring of the mental approach to the wording and management of information, before that of practical tools. Entity modeling is based on the idea that every object in the real world, whether concrete or purely conceptual, can be well identified and described, with the main purpose of being reused, even in very different contexts. The most up-to-date cataloging rules, for example the Official RDA Toolkit, introduces some terms that clearly indicate this shift of perspective towards entity modeling: the term entity boundary, for example, clearly suggests the concept of identifying the boundaries of an entity, to steer and direct cataloging decisions.

But the processes of identification, which are effective on some types of things, instead show all their weaknesses when the boundaries of the object become uncertain or even fluid: semantic indexing becomes prone to manipulation or distortion of meaning in this regard, being largely influenced by cultural contexts, linguistic variants, different political and social approaches of the responsible institutions. The problem of using the owl:sameAs property to connect individuals with the same identity but in different datasets, which isn’t new in the field of Artificial Intelligence and the Semantic Web, becomes huge when the entities to be connected are difficult to place in a precise semantic frame. One of the possible approaches to capture and identify the meaning that a string conveys is the creation of a sort of semantic chains, a possible, albeit onerous, method in entity modeling processes that use different, heterogeneous but somehow connectable sources.

Valentina Atturo, Subject indexing in the ICCU Alphabetica portal

The contribution aims to illustrate the implications of subject-based indexing in the context of the Alphabetica portal. The so-called “semantic radar” is an innovative tool, applied to the general search of Alphabetica, which allows the user to explore and visualize the resources in the portal by means of a “concept map.” Specifically, the widget in question is built on a tagging system that links to NS terms. There is an index, associated with news items in the SBN General Catalog, which contains a list of terms from the Multidisciplinary Thesaurus, derived from the subjectification of the news item itself and the Dewey classification. The concept map provides a list, in the form of a list, of terms related to the keyword search; a diagram with focus on a term selected from the list (at the opening the first term in the list); and a list of Alphabetical breakdowns with information on the number of results and consistency of the digital with respect to the selected term. The terms in the diagram are derived from the BNCF thesaurus and include, in addition to the central term (focus), related and more specific terms. The relevance of the terms is given by the number of records tagged with the term.

Lorenzo Gobbo, Automatic subject indexing: testing of Annif software for the Italian language

The speech aims to introduce the result of the train for the Italian language of Annif, an automated subject indexing tool developed by the National Library of Finland.

The project was a part of a Web archiving internship program hosted by the National Central Library Florence (BNCF). The use of a variable number of subjects coded according to a single standard is necessary to avoid an uncontrolled dissemination of terms within search systems, improving indexing by Search Engines and creating controlled access point to digital resources within shared catalogs. The trial aimed to meet the conditions necessary to make the tool work and to train Annif to return subjects expressed according to the Thesaurus del Nuovo Soggettario, the Italian subject indexing language curated by the BNCF. The Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence algorithms training required a number of steps: the identification and normalization of a text corpus classified according to the selected standard; the conversion of subject headings into individual keywords; the integration of the Thesaurus with external authority files for the total coverage of the terms used as subjects; the comparison of the results produced by all the algorithms supported by Annif and the choice of the best configuration; the checking of the scalability of individual algorithms based on the amount of titles used for training.

30,000 titles from the Italian National Bibliography (from 2018 to mid-2022) has been used for the trial: for an optimal functioning of the algorithms, each subject headings should recur in at least 10 titles within the training corpus, but currently 92% of subject headings do not reach this threshold, so a progressive integration of indexed titles is necessary. Finally, it will be necessary for optimal results to develop a complete vocabulary SKOS version for Italian language, including entity names, to let the program understand hierarchy and relationships between labels.

An initial shared effort and widespread use of automatic indexing systems would guarantee interoperability between resources from different structures and contexts of production and distribution. The roadmap for future developments will be quickly outlined.

Elisa Tosi Brandi, Classifying the heterogeneous cultural heritage of fashion

Only recently in Italy has the issue of preserving sources regarding fashion heritage, produced by artisans and businesses that, as private entities, have no obligation to keep the documentation generated and/or acquired during their activities. This is the reason for the loss of evidence consisting not only of garments and accessories in different types of materials, but also of documentation, mostly paper and digital, concerning all business activities, from the research and conception of the idea to its development and the marketing of the finished product. The most virtuous companies over the past three decades have begun to preserve at least the so-called “product archive,” the most fascinating and most easily expendable segment of the historical archive, because it can attest to and tell the story of the company through the assets produced by the latter over time. Recent attention by the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and the collaboration with experts has made companies more aware of the need to preserve the entire documentary chain that can be linked to the product. However, what to select and how to classify the items of these heterogeneous and potentially numerous documentary complexes is left to the discretion of the owners. Good practices of analysis and cataloguing fashion archives and collections managed in the public domain could lead the way in this subject linked to archival, library and museology. Starting from the case study of the so-called “Gruau archive” owned by the Municipality of Rimini, which documents the activity of Rimini-born artist and graphic designer René Gruau (1909-2004), the first advertising illustrator for Christian Dior perfumes (1948) for example, this speech aims to bring to the attention of experts in the field of indexing and classification the issue of the managing of the heterogeneous cultural heritage of fashion.

Vincenzo Maltese, ‘Cataloguing’ experts by competences: the Digital University project

Knowledge Organization methodologies are traditionally used to catalog bibliographic material. However, they also prove effective for the creation of controlled vocabularies, the cataloging and search of non-library resources (for example audio, video, museum items, etc.). I will present the experience gained at the University of Trento as part of the Digital University initiative. By applying Knowledge Organization, Knowledge Representation and Data Integration methodologies, we developed a system that allows indexing and searching experts by their competences ( The controlled vocabulary currently consists of about 3000 concepts in Italian and English and is constantly growing. The vocabulary is managed by applying Ranganathan’s analytico-synthetic approach, and in particular the subdivision rule by genus-species. In Digital University, competences are only one of the metadata we use to describe people (for example, we also manage the name, surname, email and telephone contacts, affiliations, …). In turn, they are only one of the objects that we manage that include publications, theses, courses and research projects. The methodologies that enable these objects to be managed effectively and efficiently were first presented at ISKO UK in 2013 and published in the Knowledge Organization journal in 2014 [1]. The developed solution was published in the CATALOGING & CLASSIFICATION QUARTERLY journal in 2019.

Andrea Marchitelli (EBSCO), Bibliograph: Open data and BIBFRAME

EBSCO Information Services (EBSCO) is introducing BiblioGraph, a linked data technology that allows users to explore, use and access library catalogs from anywhere on the web. BiblioGraph is the next step in EBSCO’s long-standing commitment to developing linked data-driven technologies and is a direct result of EBSCO’s acquisition of Zepheira in 2020.

BiblioGraph leverages BIBFRAME to transform the library catalog into linked data resources using data from authoritative sources — making connections within a library catalog to show related people, topics, items, publishers, and more, allowing users to find and use their library’s resources on the web. Library staff can track usage statistics through automated reports, demonstrating how often people use BIBFRAME to use their library’s catalog.

Alessandra Moi, Andrea Marchitelli, Carlo Bianchini, Author tagging: potential and limits of keywords in professional scientific production

It’s twenty years since the digital technologies invaded the library world, but today many questions are still opened: these questions concern how the languages and tools of the Web have transformed many areas of the library science, not least the area traditionally defined as “subject indexing”. The diffusion of social tagging practices can be connected to this changed approach: the subject string, complex, controlled but often foreign to users, is replaced by single keywords, freely and spontaneous established by the users themselves.

The choice of keywords becomes more importantly in association with the production of professional content, for example in scientific article, one of the most used publication types in specialistic communication; in scientific articles, keywords as primary access to information are essential to recovery and use the resource itself. In these situations, we pass from social to author tagging, because each author choice the appropriate terms to define the main focus of publication autonomously.

However, it’s wondering what impact the free and uncontrolled attribution of keywords by a single person, although a domain expert, has in search and retrieve actions.

Starting from these preconditions, the three most important Italian journals for Library science (, AIB studi, Biblioteche oggi) will be presented as a concrete example during the talk; specifically, the different research tools available by each journal and the impact of different keywords on search will be shown. After, the same matter will be showed in relation to a larger repository, as DOAJ, in which the aggregation of metadata from different sources makes very complex to find all the available resources referring to a specific topic.

On the basis on these real examples, a final consideration will be provided in order to identify the “weak points” of keywords within professional scientific production, with specific attention to the technological limits.

Margherita Naim, Subject indexing of the photographic image: proposals and models

Subject indexing of photographic images is a significant, but rarely explored topic in the literature about photo-objects description. This practice involves not only the selection and use of controlled vocabularies and thesauri, but also the development of ad hoc criteria to describe images rather than text. Conceptual analysis and interpretation of image content in an indexing language need to comply with standards. This is the reason why the Nuovo Soggettario. Guida al sistema italiano di indicizzazione per soggetto, edited by the National Central Library of Florence has been applied to photography in several contexts – e.g. libraries, archives, museums. In the aim to stimulate a broader discussion on this topic, some proposals are being formulated for subject indexing photographic images, and to apply the Nuovo Soggettario to particular cases.

Anna Lucarelli, Elisabetta Viti, Between textuality and iconology: insights into subject indexing of maps

In the library world, maps have gained increasing consideration in recent decades, thanks in part to digitization projects that have been undertaken. Their unique features render them interesting resources, especially from the perspective of integrated catalogues, the use of descriptive standards and shared tools, and controlled vocabularies. From the point of view of subject indexing, it is important to consider the maps by taking into account such factors as periodization (ancient or modern), media, production techniques, thematic types, and the predominance of the ‘visual’ and iconological components rather than the textual. In this context, there are a number of issues of interest: the type of documentary language to be preferred (e.g. pre-coordinated or post-coordinated), the type of conceptual analysis to be applied, the methods for the control of the terminology and, in particular, the toponyms (proper names of places). In the catalogues of libraries in other countries, multiple ‘tags’ of various types are normally implemented to express the semantic contents of these resources, thereby making their exploration possible. In Italy, to surmount an uneven and sometimes inconsistent handling of these resources, the Servizio bibliotecario nazionale (National Library Service) with its latest developments will play a fundamental role. The Nuovo soggettario edited by the Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze (National Central Library of Florence), is becoming the most widely used official tool for the subject indexing of cartographic resources. The Nuovo soggettario thesaurus contains an extremely rich variety of terms in the field of cartography and, thanks to some of them, interoperability is enabled with similar indexing tools in other languages (e.g. LCSH, RAMEAU, GND, etc.) and with the databases of museums and archives that describe maps, albeit with different standards.

Antonella Fischetti, Navigating in an ocean of content: subject indexing of sound and audiovisual resources at ICBSA

Still in the last twenty years of the twentieth century the approach to cataloging and semantic description of documents was simpler: there were few research accesses in the files of libraries and institutes. The advent of digital has certainly facilitated research work (a world of sources to draw on in a very short time), but it also made the librarian’s work much more complex, in terms of cataloging and subjecting. A particular difficulty for institutes such as Icbsa (Istituto centrale per i beni sonori e audiovisivi) which deal with types of materials produced in the last thirty years of the nineteenth century, considered cultural heritage only in relatively recent times. The world of sound and audiovisual recording, intimately connected to technological evolution, industrially produces large quantities of supports (and more and more intangible resources) in which the quantity of content has increased inversely proportional to the size of the physical support. To the objective complexity (of time and economic too) to produce an analytical cataloging description, an essential basis for the research, is added the even greater difficulty of adequately subjecting, indispensable for orienting oneself in thousands and thousands of hours of recording. The greater potential offered by technology has also produced greater expectation for research among users, so to the traditional function of subjection – attributing a descriptor to summarize the content – especially for sound and audiovisual materials, indexing of the contents is becoming increasingly necessary, useful for direct access in broad contexts, especially spoken ones, but not only (one of the reference examples is the Shoah Foundation website with over 55,000 interviews catalogued, indexed and consultable minute by minute through 60,000 keywords and phrases. A project promoted and implemented by the Icbsa in this direction is “Ti racconto in italiano” (I tell you in Italian), a platform conceived and created to enhance some sound resources – interviews with artists, entrepreneurs, actors and directors – collected between the eighties and 2000 with the main objective (in addition to providing foreign students with original material to practice their knowledge of Italian language) of creating tools that allow scholars to make better use of these sources. The consultation of the materials is therefore facilitated not only by the thesaurus, but by the semantic indexing of the contents too and by the possibility of searching for single passages of interest starting from the concepts or even from simple keywords.

Ignazio Pirronitto, Subject indexing of normative acts

Subject indexing can be related to any category of resource, including normative acts. This feature points out a further stimulus in the development of semantic metadataction aimed at not-book resources. In light of the fact that the databases that allow the consultation of legislative acts of all kinds are constantly increasing, the survey demonstrates how the indexing process by subject can be applied to this special type of resources, so as to facilitate their management in a knowledge organization system that allows its description but, above all, its recovery with accuracy. The study attempts to apply the Italian system of subject indexing of Nuovo Soggettario in each of its steps, and practical examples are suggested on how to provide semantic access points that enable the search for regulatory acts by subject. Acts of different nature, such as resolutions, laws, decrees, recommendations, issued by bodies of different territorial areas (regional administrations, Italian Government, European Union and bodies dependent on the UN) are thoroughly investigated to prove either the efficacy and the consistency of the subject indexing program. It is also shown how to carry out the conceptual analysis of a normative act, according to the ISO 5936:1985 standard, dwelling on some particular and typical aspects of the conceptual content of this type of resource in order to proceed, afterwards, to the correct identification of the roles of each term to create subject strings that are able to fully represent the conceptual content of a norm. A specific in-depth study is devoted to bringing out all the semantic aspects that can be considered with regards to the subject of a norm and how this can be declined in order to bring out firstly, what the “aboutness” of the resource is, secondly, what the “isness” of a normative act is, and finally, what is required to create strings of subject built based on the “ofness” of the resource. The cases analyzed refer to the Italian system of the Nuovo Soggettario used by the Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze, however, the indexing of regulatory acts can be performed by using any indexing language.

Gislene Rodrigues da Silva, Célia da Consolação Dias, Product image content representation model for electronic commerce: MRCIP

With the advancement of information technologies and the digital changes imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, society has experienced numerous transformations and e-commerce is increasingly present in people’s daily lives. To market products and services on the internet, companies use websites, virtual stores and also promote their products through social networks. But to achieve the purpose, which is sales, you need to stand out from your competitors. It was noticed that the well-prepared description of product images is an information organization strategy that can contribute to significant changes to stimulate the intended action. It is worth noting that for this, advertising and marketing apply persuasion techniques for the elaboration of messages that allow to stimulate the consumer to the intended action. Given this scenario, Information Science can contribute with methods of representing informational content and assist in the availability of this information. Therefore, this thesis in progress aims to develop a model to help the brand and especially small entrepreneurs in the representation of product images in an electronic marketing environment. The elaboration of this research is justified by the need to develop studies that help a brand when presenting information about the product to the consumer. The model elaborated was named MRCIP and has the following informational categories: product name, description, technical information, tags and attributes/evaluations. As a result of the research, the MRCIP and the categories present for the representation of the content of the images of the products are presented to assist in the indexing process.

Mara Sorrentino, Dal thesaurus locale al Nuovo soggettario: indicizzazione per soggetto di fotografie e cartoline alla Biblioteca civica Gambalunga di Rimini

La Biblioteca civica Gambalunga di Rimini dal 1974 conserva, digitalizza e cataloga il proprio patrimonio fotografico, oltre un milione e mezzo di immagini che documentano la realtà storica locale. Nel corso degli anni la Biblioteca ha cercato di migliorare l’accesso alle informazioni e di rendere fruibili le proprie raccolte, librarie e iconografiche, attraverso l’uso di standard condivisi internazionali e di norme nazionali per la catalogazione descrittiva e le intestazioni per autore (ISBD, REICAT), per l’indicizzazione semantica per soggetto (Nuovo soggettario di Firenze) e la classificazione (CDD). È bene precisare che nella catalogazione della grafica l’uso del numero decimale Dewey non ha lo scopo di determinare la collocazione dei singoli documenti, ma di esprimere ulteriormente, attraverso l’indicizzazione dei suoi descrittori, il soggetto rappresentato in un’immagine o la disciplina di appartenenza del fondo catalogato. Il trattamento di indicizzazione semantica per soggetto sul materiale fotografico è in corso di sperimentazione nel Polo della Rete bibliotecaria di Romagna e San Marino, cui partecipa la Biblioteca Gambalunga, secondo un progetto che si basa sull’abbandono del thesaurus locale, “Soggettario Immagini”, e sulla sua graduale sostituzione con il “Nuovo soggettario di Firenze”. Il nuovo Thesaurus specifica, infatti, nella definizione di risorsa/documento indicizzabile per soggetto […] tutte le possibili forme e mezzi di registrazione e trasmissione della conoscenza, tutti i tipi di materiale trattati nelle biblioteche e nelle altre istituzioni della memoria registrata (archivi e musei): manoscritti, libri antichi e moderni, ebook, periodici, musica notata ed eseguita, immagini fisse e in movimento, carte geografiche, fotografie, registrazioni sonore, documenti d’archivio, oggetti d’arte e reperti di ogni tipo, risorse online, siti web; raccolte, singoli esemplari o parti di tali prodotti. Il passaggio dal soggettario locale al nuovo Thesaurus ha lo scopo di uniformare le modalità di ricerca nel catalogo romagnolo “Scoprirete” del materiale grafico e di quello librario, monografico o seriale, oltre a garantire la possibilità di condividere le informazioni con biblioteche di Poli diversi, nel caso si decida in futuro il riversamento della grafica in SBN. Mostreremo il lavoro svolto su due fondi conservati in Biblioteca, l’Archivio fotografico del Centro Educativo-Italo-Svizzero (CEIS) e la Collezione di cartoline Fausto Mauri. Un archivio e una collezione, perciò, termini che contraddistinguono due diverse tipologie di fondi documentari, spesso contrapposte fra loro, ma che possono essere compresenti in una biblioteca. Da un lato un archivio di immagini con serie e sottoserie create in origine dal soggetto produttore, dall’altra una raccolta fattizia con serie tematiche create a posteriori dal catalogatore, nel rispetto comunque dell’ordine tematico, sebbene non spontaneo, dato dal collezionista. Due realtà diverse, che richiedono approcci differenti sia nell’ordinamento che nella catalogazione del materiale, ma che possono accogliere la stessa modalità di indicizzazione semantica. Per entrambe è prevalsa la decisione di catalogare le immagini “a gruppi”, in modo da mantenere l’unitarietà delle serie originali, ad esempio le serie di negativi, ma anche di quelle fattizie. Per queste serie e per gli album fotografici che raggruppano in un’unica descrizione più immagini, si è resa necessaria la creazione di soggetti “particolari”, mediante un tipo di indicizzazione “spinta” che ha permesso di creare un accesso semantico a ciascuna immagine o a più dettagli della stessa, possibilità così espressa nel Nuovo soggettario: […] Per esempio, quando si indicizzano risorse iconografiche o letterarie può essere necessario identificare e selezionare uno o più soggetti per ciascun livello di analisi dell’opera. Per questo tipo di opere, viene generalmente creato un numero di accessi per soggetto mediamente più alto rispetto ad altre tipologie. A completare il lavoro di soggettazione è la possibilità nel catalogo Scoprirete di estendere la ricerca alle didascalie delle immagini, che riportano ulteriori informazioni sul soggetto e non solo, stavolta, attraverso l’uso del linguaggio naturale. Per facilitare la ricerca dell’utente meno esperto nell’uso del catalogo, sono stati inoltre creati dei link tematici che collegano la pagina web della Biblioteca dedicata a ciascun fondo, alle gallerie di immagini del catalogo Scoprirete, in modo da poter “navigare” tra le informazioni, all’interno e all’esterno del catalogo. Attraverso la digitalizzazione, la corretta catalogazione e un’accurata indicizzazione la

Biblioteca promuove e valorizza il proprio patrimonio iconografico, auspicando la ricercabilità e la condivisione di informazioni e immagini nei cataloghi nazionali, internazionali e metaopac.

Search and navigation features of the new Biblioteche Oggi Trends platform, by the Biblioteche Oggi Trends editorial team

From 2021 “Biblioteche oggi Trends” journal began a transformation towards a new form of “ennhanced” journal with an online digital edition ( that supports and enrich the traditional print edition through different types of sources (i.e. multimedia, links, interviews, etc.).

The aim is twofold: to make available to readers a tool both for critical reflection and cultural and professional updating characterised by a more immersive and interactive reading experience; to offer authors a more flexible and dynamic space to explore their understanding of the topics dealt with in the print edition, giving also them the opportunity to use non-traditional research sources.

URL: Copyright AIB 2023-04-03. Creata da Andrea Marchitelli, ultima modifica 2023-04-03 di Andrea Marchitelli